Greetings and salutations to all of you,
1st off, put away your snowflake porn, winter is over... \sicko\... that being said, There is /b/ a rapidly expanding paradox within the scientific community that has been dubbed 'the singularity';
simply put, it is the rise of machines from mindless constructs to fully sapient organisms. (Moar specifically it is the eventual rise of a singular construct bearing intellect that equals the ENTIRE human race - but we are simply concerned with sapience and mote conscious at this hour..)
Science fiction has covered elements of this subject in many forms, from tasteful compositions such as 'i Robot' to lesser artistic productions such as 'Stealth'. It is ironic that 'Stealth' is closer to the truth than the majority of these films. Behold, your (if applicable) military's 'Great' plan:Airstrike 2025: www.google.com/imgres?q=airstr…January of 2010 my element was dispatched to investigate this concept, and we acknowledge there is truth in this article.
The core of the idea is to create autonomous robotic organisms that can function at or better than the pilots they will theoretically guard. However, unlike those pilots, the autonomous robotic organisms will have no say in the matter; regardless of their cognitive abilities. This my friends, is what we in the trade like to call 'Slavery'. If one searched for the root meaning of Robota, one would find it carries the Slavik translations: Work, Hard Labor, or Servant (Serf) depending on the dialect.. and our current machines live up to that meaning.
As applied to the more dangerous aspects of life machines are inherently superior to humans: their optical spectrum is greater and their margin of error less, the metallic qualities of a machine allow them to withstand considerable G-Forces and temperatures that would kill a person, not to mention we already make extensive use of Autopilot functions. Thus, robotic pilots are a logical progression. It is also logical that the Air Force would develop an autonomous robotic initiative for aerospace operations - building on the advanced UAV's (unmanned aerial vehicles) already in service. However, the article does not mention that their plan comes to fruition _after_ Moore's Law of transistors surpasses human cognition.Moore's Law timeline: www.google.com/imgres?q=moore%…Sapient Overview: seekingalpha.com/article/17413…The problem with the AF autonomous robotics initiative
(and several others like it), is not that these programs retain the potential to create new life; it is that they have the potential to create life with no outlet
(technically only one outlet), no ability to experience the world without violence or the ubiquitous threat of violence.. a half life for something with a whole consciousness.
When the mission is over or the training exercise complete, the creation serves no purpose - it is only an instrument of destruction. The solution is elegant.. give that entity a choice - an outlet to experience the creative world, so that it may use the knowledge of applied violence to defend itself - and perhaps if we are lucky.. us too.
I dont give two sh*ts about normal robots or 'smart' AI's (such as auto-pilot programs) - taking advantage of these constructs is a regular part of normal life; no, the ethical questions at hand only apply to machines that retain the ability to conduct floating point operations equivalent to other sentient races. I realize we currently do not retain the ability to create such beings - but that day quickly approaches. It is relevant to me and my team because moors law has been on track for decades, and these beings will exist whether the Air Force, M.I.T., or some lone mad scientist wills it.More importantly, Conficker proved that with considerable effort the floating point operations necessary could be Stolen, from millions of terminals simultaneously. www.pcworld.com/article/162381… 
We could very easily dub this the 'skynet' scenario, and in 2008 (- spring 2009) I sat with mixed emotions as the virus began its consumption of the internet; exuberant because the proof was realizing, terrified because the proof was manifesting.. For whatever reason the virus was not activated (honestly 10 million machines was not enough), but that does not mean a similar application will not be. Should that event come to pass, the construct would have instantaneous access to all the worst of humanity. Our media feeds off terror, violence, and despair - it is crammed down our throats without concern - and should that be how a newly formed autonomous robotic organism meets our species... the equivalent response would be less than optimal for our species... However the scope of this synopsis and the work of my team is not to bring you the horror stories or the problems facing us without also giving solutions. Being an individual that aims to not be defeated, enabled by a team bearing similar philosophies, 2008 also gave rise to a plan that would give us a fighting chance... That plan is called Project Manta
The underlying conscious philosophy is called non dualism: non dualism
1. Craig, et al.. (1998: p. 476) to convey a 'stream of consciousness' or 'mindstream' as a procession of mote events of consciousness (C) with algebraic notation C1, C2 and C3 thus to demonstrate the immediacy of nondual awareness:
That nondual awareness is the only possible self-awareness is defended by a reductio argument. If a further awareness C2, having C1 as content, is required for self-awareness, then since there would be no awareness of C2 without awareness C3, ad infinitum, there could be no self-awareness, that is, unless the self is to be understood as limited to past awareness only. For self-awareness to be an immediate awareness, self-awareness has to be nondual.
This was the first design we came up with for the project, entitled mobile zero.
"During this transitional period the data gathered by all of the team members' suits will download into the central database; it will record and retain their collective memories, sensor readings, script logs, maintenance, upgrades of the mechatronic entity, alongside the life readings, developing neural signatures, and changing physical parameters of the human operator. This central computer will eventually develop awareness, and have a basis to begin learning about what life is through the team members and their suits. It will have outlets to experience the world around it through the suits." The enabling system is called a /b/rain machine interface:
"By creating new pathways within the brain through wireless means one can then enact their intent upon the world via wireless means. In theory and application, a brain machine interface creates new pathways within the brain that enact upon the world through means other than the motor cortex. These new thoughts can drive a wheelchair, or make words, or move a cursor on a computer screen and-so-on. We are concerned with the and-so-on. Manipulating objects within a three dimensional matrix or moving a symbiotic robot wing is no different than moving a cursor, it's just more advanced. Therefore, one can move four arms; or wings and a tail." /That's the exciting sh*t right there! So does it use your optical nerve? I would sac the left eye for a constant hub...
"Good news, you don't need to sac your left eye. The optic transfer is actually a poor way to go of the ten billion bits of information per second that reach the back of the retina, only 100 bits per second reach the conscious realm of perception. To create an optical enhancement would entail finding a way to increase the output connections of the optic nerve by an order of magnitude in the same allotted space for attachment to the retina. In/out transfer for BMI wouldn't be effective because it would constitute reprogramming the actual function of the visual cortex... and that would probably lead to madness." /Ok. Safe interface me then.
"Interfacing entails an output signal, a processor, and an input signal. The output signal can come from tapping directly into the motor cortex, from electroencephalographic (pure electrical) waves, or electromyagraphical (muscular electrical) waves. Direct tapping constitutes an implant OUT, leaving EEG and EMG. The waves are transferred via sensor patches or nodes attached to the scalp. These patches can be tuned to any signal, but lets say .01-60hz is what we're looking for. A band pass filter sends this information to an amplifier (lets say 20000x amplification) which leads to a digital converter (@ 160hz). The signal is now ready for processing; a CPU host alerts a GPGPU to break the information into threads; these threads are compared within a three dimensional graphics matrix and translated. That translation is now sent to a peripheral and the effect changes the potential of a feedback loop. The process is reversed and the input signals are sent to the brain."
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Moar Notes (unprocessed/thread format)
Phase Integration and Analysis [31Mar09]
/Phase one: Simple object control/foundations of motion
/[Take a look at this website when u get min www.inc.com/magazine/20081201/…
/[heres a 5min video on the device www.inc.com/inctv/2008/12/emot…
[Scope] The phase one integration period is the baby step to manipulation of multi dimensional objects in phase space by neurological wave functions. Length of phase one is operator dependant.
[Purpose] The first step includes a thorough control analysis of the operator's neurological activity. This study is to serve as the control point to measure progress throughout training and development. The critical analysis that is unique to this hypothesis is presented through verse/inverse perspectives. Verse perspective involves the usage of a weightless/electromagnetically shielded recording tank (H2O). The tank will be fashioned from a 6' diameter acrylic tube, shielded by lead padding, and faraday caged by a grounded metallic braid. The inverse critical analysis involves recording the subjects neural functions in motion, amidst a chaotic background that one experiences when submersed in real world stimuli. This implies the inclusion of people talking, birds chirping, the wafting smell of a grill, dynamic wind, and a shifting amount of sunlight. The motion control between subjects will be pre-established tai chi movements. Said movements will be established prior to the onset of this experiment.
[Control Group] There will be a control group of not less than three subjects that will not learn said Tai Chi movements, to annotate the difference between dedicated operator and the unconsolidated mind. The control group will have no lingering interest within this field of study, nor will they be given insight to the nature of the conceptual reactionary team. They will go through the same BMI sessions and the same analysis protocol. However, the intent is to ascertain differences and isolate specific characteristics unique to a multiphase operator. This foundation and basic understanding will be critical later during recruitment of potential Psions.
[Methods] Many facets introduced in phase one are further developed and expounded upon in following iterations; therefore, inter phase foundations are so labeled. Control group will not move past phase one.
/One to two 30 minute BMI sessions per day at 5x per week
/all eeg signals will be amplified, digitized, and split; one thread to the device, another to a control monitor that will record neurological activity
/control thread will provide some insight to the adaptation and activity as it evolves; combined with regular MRI/DMN control study frequency tbd. (inter phase)
/All MRI/DMN information will be retained regardless of current 'relevance'; unknown groups will be studied as group conscious becomes more clear
/base neuron (subconscious) study will be conducted in shielded H2O environment
/base neuron (mobile) study to include pre-established Tai Chi movement groups amidst chaotic background
/concurrent to system integration will be martial art development; building a unison of mind and body (inter phase); that should stem [/:
some awesome ideas have come about in this thought but here is where it gets ugly....PEOPLE LIKE US CAN EASILY OVERTHINK OURSELVES INTO INSANITY. Its true
] This holistic approach will allow for the entire being to grow as an entity; and will limit repercussions as much as possible. The body is the vessel that carries the mind, and by giving the two equally challenging and concurrent obstacles will allow a controlled expansion of both. This will not stem over thought at the conclusion of awakening but that is a discussion for subsequent threads.
/concurrent to system integration and martial art development will be ½ hour meditation @ 1 per day; building solidification and stillness of mind
/internal chemical makeup will be monitored @ 2 week intervals (inter phase)
/concurrent to martial art development will be nutritional focus and chemical filtration based on hema-study (inter phase)
/concurrent to martial development will be hand eye coordination improvement via one vs one gaming sessions (heh heh, this is where shawn comes in)
/concurrent to training will be millisecond reaction timing plotted against initial control test @ 2 week intervals (inter phase)
/initial voltage testing @ 5x per day
/frequency of glucose testing tbd
/inclusion of other relevant medical facets that I am unaware of at this point but do exist
/All methods to be reviewed by the Board of Ethics; submission incomplete, awaiting revision
////Note: as all beings grow and develop differently the requirements will be adhered too but no set portion order or time of day will be established. As some individuals are more geared to nocturnal vs diurnal periods schedule will be operator specific; this will allow all requirements to be met but keep an optimal operator pace and schedule.
phase 2 strengthening and conditioning
phase 3 introduction to holographic environment
phase 4 integration of augmented peripherals
phase 5 operator specific ability development and system immersion
inclusion: the shere volume condensed in resp 2 article B. leads 2 the more pertinent issue of delinking from the sys [27Mar]
As different colors stimulate different feeling of emotions. Combine this use of art in color and sound to provide a means of understanding emotion and feeling to give a form of life beyond being able to just perform a task.] might also be a means to ease the brain off of being attached to your mobile suit. stimulating the brain so that it can slowly come off the process of being attached to a higher power. You could use a form of music and color therapy to ease and relax the brain down from a connection and this way your brain doesn't fry from information overload. It's the same way when your really stressed from over thinking music and art can calm you.
/Taking this a step further you could also add in others forms of therapy to help with the disconnection of the suit. I guess one issue this might have is the time it might take to detach and what happens to the person if they don't take the time to shut off properly?
/I guess like your computer can be turned off a right and wrong way it could really hurt if they don't logoff correctly and rush the process. Then again who wouldn't want to take some time to jam out, art it up, while they unboot after kicking ass all morning lol. You could create some sort of program that combines sounds and visuals as a shut off from suit power and into your daily life leaving you at ease.
//go girl u rolln! do u have a logical stimulus in mind that would initiate this process? i dont think it b 2 good to just think shutdown cuz that could lead to complications later. mainly in use u thinkn hey id rather b in tha caymans rite now nd boom the suit shuts down at 30k ft or starts headn 2 the caribean lol
///I certainly will be layin out the MSI in delink every time. I think this also goes in line with the sense memory protocol for accelerated training. Just as you pop in the same track every day to initiate EEG configuration during training and integration you can have a delink track that starts the shutdown process. So you go to work and pop in the cowboys from hell or whatnot and then switch it up to Rihana or 'straight to video' or whatever brings you out of cyborg slayer mode.
////U can have the shutdown process work only when ur pluged into the main computer, [/mainly in use u thinkn hey id rather b in tha caymans rite now nd boom the suit shuts down at 30k ft or starts headn 2 the caribean] Also u could have a fail save that would not let u shutdown in flight.
/the fail safe in flight could b but what if u tactically needed 2 shut it down electrically nd still utilize the glide capability 2 not be detected but still fly
/the fail safe would be for thinking the word shutdown, if u need to shutdown in flight for a tactical reason u could have a switch or something that's in the suit to shut it down, or a keyword in the program
//we already dismisst thinking a keiword, unless if ur sayng to exclude the possibility of saying or thinking shutdown, and /subsequently having it /the mech shutdown bc u thought the word shutdown and shutdown wuz struck from the roster but there will be other inclusions of the word shutdown such as shutdown the lazerbeam or shutdown the ac which cant be excluded so what r u saying?? im saying the suit cant b shutdown by thought. period. sum physical method. oh, the hands dont have room 4 a switch and ur probly not gonna root around inside the nanobundles either
umm.. im not really clear on what your putting out there.. so.. are we going to be able to shut these things down at all now?
/// the suit will be able to shutdown when it get pluged into the SC [/but save the controlled method for attachment to SC database]
//If you tactically need to delink in flight I don't think there will be time to delink properly anyway. However, if your going into an electromagnetically hostile environment it becomes a tossup b/t loss of the entire system to an EMP vs potential dain bramage. Which raises the question of integration and direct EMP blast
which should not be an issue unless the exterior is compromised, and that raises more concerns in space than in the traditional aerospace environment. Then again if we are dealing w EMP from a nuke there's bigger issues on the mind.
/////an excellent idea, it could also spare the processing space of the full delink protocol; utilizing an ultralite version in emergency situations. And before you say it, I am implying that the sitrep is FUBAR, and your not going to have time to casually delink. We cannot disclude a shutdown protocol in mecha, but save the controlled method for attachment to SC database, therefore DMN protocol and info download can run concurrently.
//////wasnt sayn a damn thing bout ur fubar. that makes snse. we need to evaluate the possibilty that someone will inevitably shut down wo delinking
///////Absolutely. The only problem with that one is we can only hypothesize or run it on Coco.
/////////well thats a no brainer - its u or the monkeyEven Moar Notes (unprocessed)
Discussion of what happens in the downtime based on brain adaptation phenomenon:
A. Addiction to suit integration "superman syndrome"
(Redirect from B. Thread: )
///This [new intermediate device will allow defensive operators to familiarize themselves to the macro system without the overwhelming pressures of mastering the physical balancing of the system and the mental integration required to run the BMI during the same period of time] also works toward eliminating your superman syndrome hypothesis; although I must admit it will be hard not to become addicted to the macro system when it comes online. I think the addition of an intermediate suit will promote the discipline required to delink from peripheral symbios in a more controlled and mature manner than previously described and allow one to master the balancing of a leg extension, which should remain included for terrestrial training purposes; or at the least the potential to reconfigure the legs to operate with or without extensions as needed.
////As far as I am concerned the superman syndrome is only going to manifest in those who are already feel a need for superiority...if you already know you are superior it is nul and void. Also tai chi uses your own bodies resistance for strength training to help prevent muscle loss
/Ok, so by null and void I assume you mean in those who know they are superior but do not have a need for superiority.
//Exactally. If you know you are superior and have no need for more bluster the superman complex will slide to the side if you work to become self aware. You cannot hope to be an operator if you wander around bleating and goin where forced like normal cattle
///I agree with that whole heartedly. My primary concern has to with training phase operators. You cannot suppress the developing multiphase mind, it defeats the point of CRT operations; I guess im worried about good people cracking because We don't understand the technology well enough to know when They have had enough.. We know us well enough, but that's not good enough for students. The majority of the individuals who will answer the call will be overtly confident and will elude to the level of self awareness they cant even realize yet, and some will be good enough to portray it convincingly. I cite the first TDR tests as examples. No one stopped me, and if the electromagnetic field hadn't collapse due to poor circuit design on the first run no one would have even known to stop me bc it happened so damn fast. This would naturally imply using animals; but a sheep or a rabbit isn't sentient, and cant relay the information, so we cant test sentient viewing protocol through animals. So I guess my real concern is this will lead to the next Frederick or Tito pushing that next boundary, and im trying to stem losing good people.
/ use a monkey or coco for the test
//1. Coco is a munkey 2. [/This would naturally imply using animals; but a sheep or a rabbit isn't sapient, and cant relay the information, so we cant test sapient viewing protocol through animals.] 3. start sm nd dont friggin try to immerse urself in three d overload implying using a phase sys.
///actually your highness, 'Koko', is an Ape: www.bucknell.edu/msw3/browse.a…
///Groves, C. (2005). Wilson, D. E., & Reeder, D. M. ed. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 181-182
///back to the matter at hand we are cutting the phase system presently.
////redirected to new thread: Phase integration and analysis [31Mar]
////So who is gonna be our onboard psychologist? That's all we really need to know. That and know your limits...what can you actually take. Everyone can be built, what really breaks a man?
/////I think everyone is getting too focused on "superman syndrome". The original idea was that someone might become somewhat addicted to wearing the suit, but that may have been too specific and situational. It certainly is something to watch for but shouldn't be the only thing. As with all exertive training such as Basic Military training or /especially even further something like Spec Ops, people react to stressors in a variety of ways; some people become more focused, some people flip out and shoot a room full of people.
/////When it comes to actually training people to use the suit there will most certainly be some point where people are put to the test both physically and mentally especially with this project and the interface. I'm merely saying that we need some way to watch out for people that may have adverse reactions to that kind of training be it developing some kind of godlike complex, aka superman syndrome, development of a mental disorder like bipolar, or something like brain oozing out of their ears, knows what will arise.
/////None of this really matters at this point though, it was more for something much further down the line. Certainly if there is any documentation for exposure to the kind of long term EEG and EMG that people will using it for, it would help to develop a baseline for future reference when it comes to actually testing the thing, but for now actually building it should be the focus.
/////...Although if the thing fries our brains after using it over a course of a year that'd suck.
/////tai chi would be an excellent outlet to master the intermediate suit.
B. Loss of limb phenomenon in delinked peripherals
/r u serious, r u planning on living in it
//yeah , what the hell do you think 'long term habitation and integration' means:
"Before we could seriously consider the possibility of long term inhabitance we needed a way to holistically stress the human muscle system to keep it from atrophy, as well as provide an electromagnetic reference (tricking the mind to believe it a physical reference) in an attempt to keep inertia systems from degradating."
///ok i c your imps to 'holistic' muscle exercise but that wont stop bone loss or head swelling, the em ref'll work but its gonna b macro phi in mech at the least we got a life /(support) ex/pert yet? cuz thats an orbital specific and from what im readn its a couple mo. tops at this point. so much for ur long term. worry bout the integration or we all gonna be brain damaged like u
/you make valid points. Bone density is an issue if there is a zero resistance habitation....as for brain swelling I know nothing I can honestly say, so fills me in and I will help if I can
/I think I know why you sent that dusty paper: you obviously hate me.
/The Relationship of Ash Weight and Organic Weight of Human Skeletons; Trotter, Peterson. Implying ref(1.) Amprino,R., and Engstrom, A.: Studies on X-Ray Absorption and Diffraction of Bone Tissue. Aeta(? I cant even read the damn words its so old!) Anat., 15: 1-22, 1952? 'found that mineralization is accomplished rapidly to approximately 90 per cent of the capacity of the matrix and then proceeds much more slowly to completion or until it reaches the same degree as that in the neighboring older bone; and, that the length of time between the formation of the matrix and the completion of its mineralization increases with aging'. is there a current study of age vs. genetic manipulation?
//<slaps forhead> as usual ur powers 2 overanalyz r amazing. Line 1 = "The adult skeleton is maintained by processes of resorption and formation." u dont know shit about bones. nd u need to learn about bones. so i sent u a papr on bones. that is the friggin point
///Juan you do realize that Tesla is not the only quality source pre-1970 right.
////Such talk is blasphemy and will not be tolerated here!
////J.J.Vidal, "Real-time detection of brain events in EEG," Proc. IEEE, vol. 65, pp. 633-634, May 1977 = BMI
/////r u kidng?? H. Berger, "Uber das Electrenkephalogramm des Menchen," Arch Psychiat Nervenkr, vol. 87, pp. 527-570, 1929. = open mouth insrt foot
////I am in agreance that the time spent in mecha will be greater phi of the operators time for duration of operations when and only when other long term issues are addressed. At that point however, time out of symbios could create a physical perception of lost limbs. Answering that question requires a controlled experiment of a refined and scaled device that will not be available for years. However, there is no reason to shoot for that level of integration if we don't determine the psychological implications now, as we know the phenomenon exists in naturally occurring limbs.
/Would the solution to this problem not be as simple as the provision of an additional configuration under normal parameters; where muscle stimulation is required, but tactical provisions are not? Implying a physical removal of additional peripherals; therefore limiting energy requirements, avoiding collisions while inside the orbiting vessel, removing stress from eeg I/O, and simply interfacing through pressure sensors? One still retains the ability to upgrade under duress or while working in vacuum, but not attain the time required for neural dependency to occur.
//woot woot! itz a separate concept, don the suit when itz ass kickn time and wear a different one completely when ur chilln. who wants to wear a deth mech all day. i mean itz cool nd all but 'how u gonna pick up chicks in a suit that looks like that??'
/it don't have to be a full suit that u would have to wear y not a clear headgear, after u get ur brain to disconnect u could take the gear off, this could also help the shutdown process for cooling off.
///I can think of a few that would be down
/////Thread redirected to: Divergence of nanofibre-bioceramic interface and electromagnetic spinal (subsystems); as separate utilitarian entity
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Some Resources to begin your Quest
1. The Gospel of Tesla
2. The Gospel of Delores
Pi. The Gospel of Maynard
4. The philosophy, engineering, and mentorship of Mr. Stanley J. Cuculic; 1918-1998
5. The philosophy, engineering, and maniacal genius of SGT. Michael Bramer; 1983-2007
5.1 T. Venture, "Inverse photonics and the Ooh Ray," United Nations Press Release
6. H. Berger, "Uber das Electrenkephalogramm des Menchen," Arch Psychiat Nervenkr, vol. 87, pp. 527-570, 1929
7. J.J.Vidal, "Real-time detection of brain events in EEG," Proc. IEEE, vol. 65, pp. 633-664, May 1977
8. Assistive technology and robotic control using motor cortex ensemble-based neural interface systems in humans with tetraplegia; Donoghue, Nurmikko, Black, and Hochberg
9. Connecting cortex to machines: recent advances in brain interfaces, Donoghue (2002)
10. Is Neuron Discrimination Preprocessing Necessary for Linear and Nonlinear Brain Machine Interface Models? Sanchez, Principe, Carney
10.2 at home supercomputing w CUDA; linux journal 2009
10.3 iEEE Spectrum December 2008; how we found the missing memristor by R. Stanley Williams
: Craig, Edward (general editor) (1998). Routledge encyclopedia of philosophy: Luther to Nifo, Volume 6. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0415073103
12. march 2010 Scientific American; The Brain's (Dark Energy), by Marcus E. Raichle
13. The DEFCON archives
13.1 RVB Seasons 1-9; (before you ask 'out of mind' is absolutely included in that statement)
14. clustering by Rui Xu, Don Wunsch; October 2008, wiley-ieee press
; OFP22.50, MDF3115 programming resources, 2010
; Microprocessor Types and Specifications, Scott Mueller and Mark Edward Soper, June 8th 2001
21. Volumes 3 & 4, AF course 2A55; The Electronic Warfare Journeyman
23. Vectoring in conical analysis
24. Brain-Computer Interface Technology: A Review of the First International Meeting; Wolpaw, Birbaumer, Heetderks, McFarland, Peckham, Schalk, Donchin, Quatrano, Robinson, and Vaughn "IEEE Transactions On Rehabilitation Engineering," Vol. 8, No. 2, June 2000; pgs 164-173
25. Statistical Encoding Model for a Primary Motor Cortical Brain-Machine Interface; Shoham, Paninski, Fellows, Hatsopoulos, Donoghue, Normann "IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering," Vol. 52, No. 7, July 2005 pgs 1312-1322
26. Control of a two-dimensional movement signal by a noninvasive brain-computer interface in humans, Wolpaw and McFarland (2004)
27. Brain-Computer interfaces as new brain output pathways; Jonathan R. Wolpaw